An audit of people admitted to hospital with diabetes and coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): data collection methods. The Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) Nationwide Audit
Keywords:COVID-19, diabetes, pandemic, COVID-Audit, risk factors and mortality, ABCD nationwide Audit
We describe the rationale, aims and objectives and the methodology of data collection for the ABCD nationwide audit of individuals admitted to hospital with coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19) and diabetes. The audit was inspired and undertaken by the urgent need to understand the clinical course of COVID-19 in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital in the UK during the pandemic. We wished to understand the clinical behaviour of diabetes per se, post hospital admission and the factors with may be associated with admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and death due to COVID-19. This was a clinically-led audit. We used existing infrastructure and expertise to collect data using an electronic tool specifically designed and piloted by the steering group members. The clinical variables were chosen to fulfil the main aim of this audit as stated above, and factors influencing the clinical course of COVID-19 in individuals with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes at the time of admission to hospital and during the whole length of stay, until discharge or death from COVID-19. The data collected so far represent a large, multicentre audit with more than 3,500 admissions during the pandemic. We plan to continue collecting additional data and publish ongoing reports of interest to diabetes clinicians with the aim of enhancing knowledge and understanding and thereby improving clinical care of, and outcomes for, people with diabetes who are admitted to hospital with COVID-19 in the UK.
Worldometer. Coronavirus. Available from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus [Accessed 2 March 2021].
Singh AK, Gillies CL, Singh R, et al. Prevalence of co-morbidities and their association with mortality in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab 2020;22(10):1915–24. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.14124
Barron E, Bakhai C, Kar P, et al. Associations of type 1 and type 2 diabetes with COVID-19-related mortality in England: a whole-population study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2020;8(10):813–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30272-2
Marfella R, Paolisso P, Sardu C, et al. Negative impact of hyperglycaemia on tocilizumab therapy in Covid-19 patients. Diabetes Metab 2020; 46(5):403–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabet.2020.05.005
Li H, Tian S, Chen T, et al. Newly diagnosed diabetes is associated with a higher risk of mortality than known diabetes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Diabetes Obes Metab 2020;22(10):1897–906. https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.14099
Wang S, Ma P, Zhang S, et al. Fasting blood glucose at admission is an independent predictor for 28-day mortality in patients with COVID-19 without previous diagnosis of diabetes: a multi-centre retrospective study. Diabetologia 2020;63(10):2102–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05209-1
Ebekozien OA, Noor N, Gallagher MP, Alonso GT. Type 1 diabetes and COVID-19: preliminary findings from a multicenter surveillance study in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2020;43(8):e83–e85. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1088
Wargny M, Gourdy P, Ludwig L, et al. Type 1 diabetes in people hospitalized for COVID-19: new insights from the CORONADO study. Diabetes Care 2020;43(11):e174–e177. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1217
Vamvini M, Lioutas VA, Middelbeek RJW. Characteristics and diabetes control in adults with type 1 diabetes admitted with COVID-19 infection. Diabetes Care 2020;43(10):e120–122. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1540
Wargny M, Potier L, Gourdy P, et al. Predictors of hospital discharge and mortality in patients with diabetes and COVID-19: updated results from the nationwide CORONADO study. Diabetologia (published online 17 Feb 2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05351-w
NIHR Health Informatics Collaborative. Available from: https://hic.nihr.ac.uk/ [Accessed 2 March 2021].
Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD). The history of the ABCD nationwide and worldwide audit programme. Available from: http://www.diabetologists-abcd.org.uk/n3/previous_ABCD_audits.htm [Accessed 2 March 2021].
Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD). ABCD Nationwide and Worldwide Audit Programme Publications. Available from: https://abcd.care/abcd-nationwide-and-worldwide-audit-programme-publications [Accessed 2 March 2021].
Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD). Launch of the Covid-19 and diabetes ABCD national audit. Available from: https://abcd.care/announcement/launch-covid-19-and-diabetes-abcd-national-audit (Accessed 2 March 2021].
Oxford University Hospitals. Is my project research? Available from: https://www.ouh.nhs.uk/researchers/planning/is-it-research/ [Accessed 2 March 2021].
Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD). ABCD COVID-19 and Diabetes: UK national audit. Available from: http://www.diabetologists-abcd.org.uk/Coronavirus/COVID-19._Diabetes_Nationwide_Audit.htm [Accessed 2 March 2021].
Publish & Transfer of Copyright Agreement
For the mutual benefit and protection of the Author and the Journal Owner/Publisher it is necessary that the Author provides formal written Consent to Publish and Transfer of Copyright before publication of the Work.