Series: Cardiovascular outcome trials for diabetes drugs Canagliflozin and the CANVAS Program, dapagliflozin and DECLARE-TIMI 58, ertugliflozin and VERTIS CV

Authors

  • Miles Fisher Glasgow Royal Infirmary

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15277/bjd.2021.320

Keywords:

diabetes, cardiovascular outcome trial, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, ertugliflozin

Abstract

EMPA-REG OUTCOME was a landmark trial with the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin, which demonstrated significant reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke) driven by reductions in cardiovascular deaths and accompanied by an early reduction in hospitalisation for heart failure. This was followed by cardiovascular outcome trials with canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and ertugliflozin. The CANVAS Program was an integrated analysis of the CANVAS and CANVAS-R trials with canagliflozin. It demonstrated a significant reduction in MACE, but not in any of the components, and there was an unexpected increase in amputations and fractures with canagliflozin. The DECLARE-TIMI 58 trial with dapagliflozin had two co-primary endpoints. A composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure was significantly reduced, but there was no significant difference in MACE comparing dapagliflozin with placebo. Analysis of patients with a prior myocardial infarction, however, demonstrated significant reductions in MACE. The VERTIS CV trial with ertugliflozin was disappointing as there was no difference in MACE comparing ertugliflozin and placebo. In all four trials a reduction in hospitalisation for heart failure was observed in patients with type 2 diabetes, regardless of whether they had existing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or increased cardiovascular risk. Pre-specified renal outcomes were reduced with empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, and these drugs are now commonly used in the management of people with type 2 diabetes. It is hard to envisage an ongoing role for ertugliflozin in routine clinical management as the evidence for its cardiovascular benefit is not convincing.

Author Biography

Miles Fisher, Glasgow Royal Infirmary

consultant

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2021-12-17

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