Potential prevention of diabetes and obesity by achieving macronutrient balance: a guide for diet and fast food


  • James EL Mackintosh University of Warwick
  • Jeminie Patel Mistry Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham
  • Sarah N Ali Royal Free Hospital, London
  • Vinod Patel University of Warwick George Eliot Hospital




macronutrients, protein, weight loss, fast food, satiety


Protein is the most satiating macronutrient. Animal studies have indicated that there may be a discrete amount of protein that an individual seeks to consume each day. Given this to be true, a person will continue to eat until this amount of protein has been consumed. Once the target is met, hunger signals are switched off. By altering the proportion of protein in a diet, you can affect how many calories are required to meet this target. A diet with a protein content >15% drives weight loss through the reduction of calories consumed to meet protein needs. We hypothesise that changing the proportion of calories from protein in a person’s diet from 12% to 20% could alter their total intake by 1000 kcal each day. This equates to a weight change of 0.9 kg each week. Maintaining a healthy weight is not as simple as changing a single variable. Eating habits in the UK are governed by a range of complex interdependent factors including hunger, emotions, cost, accessibility, education and culture. However, we suggest that by addressing satiety, and thereby hunger, we may remove a significant barrier for those trying to alter their diet for weight loss.

Author Biography

Vinod Patel, University of Warwick George Eliot Hospital

Professorial Clinical Teaching Fellow: Diabetes and Clinical Skills

Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick

Hon Consultant in Endocrinology and Diabetes, Acute Medicine, Medical Obstetrics

Diabetes and Endocrinology Centre, George Eliot Hospital NHS Trust, Nuneaton

Clinical Director for Diabetes

West Midlands Clinical Networks & Clinical Senate, NHS England and NHS Improvement – Midlands


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