Glucose lowering strategies with insulin


  • M Joan Taylor School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH UK
  • Krishan P Chauhan School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH UK
  • Tarsem S Sahota School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH UK



new insulins, insulin amino acid modifications, conjugations, formulatory changes, unfolding and aggregation protection, closed loop, delivery routes, hepatic to peripheral ratio


People with type 1 diabetes must use insulin and a large fraction of those with type 2 condition also do so. Many therefore struggle with the unpredictable balancing of insulin dose with calorie intake and utility. A healthy pancreas makes meticulous adjustment on a continuous basis that present therapeutic insulin administration cannot match. However, much progress has been made to make it simpler to inject both background and fast-acting boost insulins with a view to better mimicking normal pancreatic output. The present fast insulins are reviewed with accent on the primary amino acid structures of the biosynthetic types that diffuse more quickly than regular insulin that associates in hexamers. This makes boost doses kinetically and clinically more effective, allowing people to inject better estimated boost and corrective doses. Formulation advances are discussed for their present and potential contributions. The newer slow-acting insulins are also described and compared, their advantage also being kinetic with a lower likelihood of inducing overnight hypoglycaemia when used optimally. Finally, the appreciation of the advantages of alternative routes of administration such as oral and peritoneal are included in this review because of the possibility of altering the hepatic to peripheral ratio, the reasons for which are more effective but less obesogenic insulin activity. The logistics of oral insulin are summarised in terms of the risks to the insulin structure, the facilitation of paracellular uptake at the apical surface and the paradoxically advantageous hepatic first pass. Other non-invasive routes are also included in the review.


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